How to Write Scary Ghost Stories that Terrify Your Readers

Fear is one of the hardest things to provoke in writing. Just flip through the pages of any ghost story anthology; how many of them are genuinely scary? It takes more than tortured groans and rattling chains. Anyone can throw gore at the reader and call it a day, but the art of raising goose bumps is an elusive one indeed.

If you can write a scary ghost story, you can write anything.

Are you ready to inspire nightmares? Then follow me…

Fear of the Unknown

People don’t fear death. No one’s afraid of ghosts. Monsters, murderers, darkness—none of the horror staples are really terrifying. If you rely on your audience being scared simply because your story includes any of the above, you’re doomed to fail. Instead, you must understand where terror truly lies.

Everyone fears the unknown.

Everyone fears the unknown.

People don’t know what comes after death, so they get scared. They don’t know what’s making that noise in the other room, so they call it a ghost and get scared. Darkness could be hiding anything—what exactly, we don’t know—so we get scared.

Get the picture? We fear what we cannot understand. That’s why feeling a touch on your shoulder when you’re all alone is so frightening: it should be impossible. The best ghost stories take full advantage of this. You won’t see the ghost; you’ll only hear it, smell it, feel it. A ghost is like the wind; you’ll only see a curtain flutter, and the question will remain in your mind, what is it?

In my story The Babysitter, the reader is never given a good idea of what the babysitter actually is. Everything is described through the limited point of view of a boy who refuses to look at it.

When writing your ghost story, don’t be afraid of withholding information. Remember: your readers, by the very act of reading, have activated their imaginations. Use this against them! Don’t bog them down with long visual descriptions of a gruesome specter; I guarantee whatever you describe will not be nearly as scary as what they come up with on their own. After all, they know what frightens them most, you do not.

My most extreme example of this is The Morgan House, in which the entire climax is left unclear. I offer only a few words of explanation, just enough to guide the reader’s imagination down a suitably dark path. A less severe example can be found near the end of Anniversary.

Another way you can introduce an element of the unknown is to limit how often you use trope words. If you’re constantly mentioning ghosts or vampires, then the reader knows exactly what they’re up against. By not attaching a label to your entity, you produce doubt. Doubt makes people uncomfortable, which makes them easier to scare.

Something Is Not Right

Why is it that one smile can put you at ease, while another makes you want to get out of the room as quickly as possible? Does it reveal just a few too many teeth? Are the eyes above it just a little bit soulless? Is the accompanying laughter a tad too enthusiastic?

We may not be able to tell what, but something is…off.

Something friendly has been distorted. You were climbing a familiar staircase, and the last step was missing. You were listening to a pleasant tune, but that one note—was it off-key?

What’s wrong with this picture?

This is a natural extension of our fear of the unknown. A defense mechanism. It tips us off that someone around us bears a sickness that we don’t want to catch, that someone is pretending to be something they’re not. In the realm of robotics and computer graphics, it is called the uncanny valley. When something comes so close to being real, but falls short in some subtle way. This is why mannequins and dolls are common phobias.

So how can you leverage this in your ghost story? There’s the obvious, of course: characters with slightly deformed features or unnatural movements. Houses with strange angles. An unexpected behavior works as well, as is the case with the crying security guard in Boxes

Then there’s the more subtle: mentioning a detail that would be innocuous anywhere else, but in this particular scenario is out of place. There’s nothing quite like a child’s laughter—especially coming from your basement at 3 in the morning. Is it really a child? Or something like a child?

You can also work it into your writing style. Phrase something in an odd way. Intentionally break the rules of grammar. Just don’t overdo it, or you’ll come across as illiterate instead of terrifying.

A Dreadful Descent

Fear must be built up gradually. Think of it like you’re taking the reader on a journey from the safety of their world to the nightmare of yours. Like any journey, it’s a transition from point A to point B. If you skip that transition by presenting your scariest scene right up front, it won’t have any effect. The audience is still comfortably seated at point A: a soft armchair by a warm fire.

That’s not to say you can never start with a spooky scene—in fact, it’s a good way to catch the audience’s interest and entice them to keep reading. Just make sure you save the best for last. Wait until the reader has gotten out of their comfy chair; wait until they’re curled up in the cold, damp corner of the basement. Once a reader is primed, they’re much easier to scare.

Save the best for last.

I use this steady progression of dread in The Expedition of Howard Rickson. The explorer goes from dismissing the sounds as those of his teammates to the gradual realization that he is the only living soul in the place.

Do You Believe in Ghosts?

We all know your story is fictional. Ghosts aren’t real, and there’s nothing hiding under our beds. Fortunately, your audience is gracious enough to suspend their disbelief, but you have to meet them halfway. Your plot has to make sense and your characters have to behave appropriately. Give your readers enough detail (without violating the “fear of the unknown” principle) that they can immerse themselves in your world.

Here are some hints to help you in the right direction:

  • Describe the setting. This builds up atmosphere—a vital component of any good ghost story.
  • Avoid ridiculous places and events. Not only is it more believable, but it’s scarier if it’s something that could happen to anyone.
  • If something weird happens, make sure there’s a reason. You don’t have to (and really shouldn’t) explain everything point by point, but give the audience enough clues to figure it out for themselves.
  • Flesh out your characters. Give them personalities, quirks, and struggles—give them a life beyond the story.

A good example of a believable ghost story that uses the above techniques is The Forgetful House. There’s very little by way of things going bump in the night, and what there is could easily be explained away by the narrator’s disturbed mind. The story is set in a credible place and it centers on a mundane event. Abundant details cement this realistic base in your head. When these details are filtered through the narrator’s unsettled thoughts, they build a thick, haunted atmosphere capable of frightening anyone.

There are also a few devices you should watch out for. At first, they may seem like good ways to make your tale more realistic, but they can actually pull your reader out of the story:

  • “This Story Is True!” No, it’s not, and you’ve just drawn attention to how fake it actually is.
  • “You Did This, You Felt That…” When I read a second-person narrative, all I can think is “No, I wouldn’t have done this, and I’m certainly not feeling that.” Stick with third- or first-person.
  • “You’re Next!” This might work on little kids, but to everyone else it just comes across as desperate. If you have to rely on breaking the fourth wall and threatening the reader directly, your story wasn’t scary.

While you should avoid corny tricks like those listed above, there are exceptions to every rule. If you must employ second person perspective, or you feel your story has to have a “you’re next” moment, do it well. Just keep in mind it’s a lot easier to get it wrong than right.

Once More, with Feeling

Emotion is vital in any form of literature, but especially ghost stories. Remember, the end goal is to make your reader feel what the protagonist is feeling: pure, unbridled terror. This is why I believe first person narratives are so effective in ghost stories. They allow the reader to more easily identify with the struggles of the main character. This isn’t to say that first person is the only way, but it’s my preferred method. If you choose to go with third person, make sure you allow the reader access to the protagonist’s thoughts and emotions.

Avoid second person like the plague.

And as I said earlier, avoid second person like the plague.

When conveying emotion, it’s all in the words you choose. The basic rule is “show, don’t tell.” For example, here’s one way of saying your character is frightened:

I was scared as the footsteps approached my bed, but I refused to look.

Now, consider this excerpt from my short story, I Looked:

I wrapped the blankets tighter around me and let out a sick whimper. My chest was tight, my stomach rotten. I would not look. No matter how close those shuffling footsteps came, I would not look. I would not, I would…not…

Both examples communicate the same thing, but which one made you feel the character’s dread?

Here’s an exercise: whenever you’re writing a scene about someone being scared, forbid yourself from using the following words:

  • Scared/Scary
  • Afraid
  • Frightened
  • Horror/Horrified
  • Terror/Terrified
  • Or any other similar terms

Instead, write what the character’s body is doing. Write exactly what they’re hearing or smelling, even if it’s only in their head. Don’t say they got pins and needles; say a thousand tiny spider legs went scuttling down their back.

Fear isn’t the only emotion you can use when writing a ghost story. Try enhancing the terror with sadness, depression, or anger. Positive emotions can have a tremendous impact as well. Offer a glimmer of hope, then replace it with something awful. The contrast can be unnerving.

Offer a glimmer of hope, then replace it with something awful.

For maximum emotional impact, your audience must care, and the best way to make them care is to develop deep characters. Establish strong personalities, allude to events in the past that have shaped them—make them feel alive. If your characters don’t seem like real people, they’re just ink on paper, and who cares about that?

Remember, in a ghost story, there are at least two characters. One is the protagonist, the one being scared. But what about the one doing the scaring? What about the ghost?

I’ve found the scariest ghosts always project some kid of emotion. It doesn’t matter what that emotion is as long as it’s dangerous:

  • Anger
  • Hatred
  • Jealousy
  • Frustration

A dangerous emotion doesn’t necessarily have to be a negative one. It could be a positive thing taken too far. Dysfunctional love, overzealous affection—as long as the ghost’s emotions project some kind of threat, you have the makings a terrifying specter.

It Was a Dark and Stormy Night

Do you want to write a great, memorable ghost story? Come up with something unique. A plot that relies on overdone clichés won’t hold your readers in suspense; they know what to expect. Of course, clichés exist for a reason. If you must use one, use it well. Do it in a way no one else has and make it your own.

The End…Or Is It?

If you want to make your ghost story truly memorable, give it a killer ending sentence. As the last thing your audience reads, it will leave a lasting impression, and may even define the entire story in their minds. An unexpected plot twist or a spooky revelation are great ways to accomplish this, and often they are the catalyst for producing goose bumps. For an example, check out my short story The Scarecrow.

Sometimes, it may help to consider switching the order of the narrative for maximum effect—hint that the character saw something, but don’t reveal what it was until later. I do this at the end of The Abyss. Other times, it will be more effective to get straight to the point without giving the reader a chance to guess what happened.

Be careful not to overextend the ending. After the big reveal, it may be tempting to offer further explanation, but this can dampen the effect. Don’t be afraid to leave some things up to the reader’s imagination. Leave some questions unanswered, some conflicts unresolved. This produces doubt in the reader (fear of the unknown) and forces them to think about your story long after they’ve finished it.

Leave some questions unanswered, some conflicts unresolved.

Your Turn

Writing a good ghost story can be a taxing venture, but when your readers tell you they can no longer walk down dark hallways or complain of trouble sleeping—that feeling is totally worth it!

To sum up, here are the main things to keep in mind when writing a ghost story:

  • People fear the unknown—use your reader’s imagination against them!
  • Exploit the uncanny valley to make your readers uncomfortable.
  • Use details to make your story and setting believable.
  • Make your reader feel what the main character feels—utter terror!
  • Use an original concept and avoid clichés.
  • Make a lasting impression with a haunting revelation at the end.

The most important advice I can give you is this: read. Immerse yourself in the genre, and you’ll find you naturally improve. A good place to start would be my library of ghost stories.

James Colton


Bloody Blade

September 6, 2016

This was great, now I know how to freak my big bro out hahahaha!


    October 25, 2016

    C’mon, freak out your bro? That is just downright dirty.


September 11, 2016

Very nice and helpful.


September 13, 2016

This is the best horror story guide I’ve seen! Every other one I’ve looked up tells you things that make no sense or just don’t work. Thank you for this.


September 15, 2016

Do you think I can write a story?

dylan antoni

September 23, 2016

I liked how you described it.

Ronald Longley

October 4, 2016

I want to write a spooky story.

Blood Victim

October 7, 2016

I get this and it is really, really helpful, but I don’t know how to apply it . . .whenever I write ghost stories and try to apply those tricks, it comes out wrong or isn’t strong enough. And I have spelling issues. Once I tried to write something scary, it succeeded, it was scary, but I wrote one word wrong, and everybody just burst out laughing reading it. They told me the story was hilarious. Ouch.

    James Colton

    October 7, 2016

    Horror really is one of the hardest genres to write. Learning to apply these tricks requires a blend of practice and reading good examples. It will take time, but don’t give up! And don’t get too discouraged by negative reactions to your stories. Take them as the learning experiences that they are, and use them to push yourself toward something better.


October 12, 2016

Did you program this page to project a ghost face? Because I saw one when I scrolled down to the “It was a dark and stormy night” heading and it scared me like anything! Then I went back up, but it didn’t show again. Just wanted to be sure…
P.S. This article is really helpful!

    James Colton

    October 12, 2016

    Well, it’s no secret this place is haunted.


      October 13, 2016

      Haha relieved to know! You’re really doing a great job on this website! Your stories solve the purpose of giving people sleepless nights and vivid ghost dreams!


    October 13, 2016

    I think he did.


October 19, 2016

I believe this is good info!!!!!!!!!


October 19, 2016

One of the best I have seen. Thanks for posting this James Colton

Lexi Raphael

October 21, 2016

These Tips really helped me. I can’t wait to do my very own scary story!!! 😉 😉 😉 ( I actually can, I just don’t want to 🙂 🙂 🙂 )

Katelynd Hunter

October 21, 2016

Now I know how to write a scary story better! Did you see the face pop up!!! lol

cole callison

October 21, 2016

This is good.

Andrew Miller

October 21, 2016

This was an interesting article.

Savannah Clardy

October 21, 2016

This is a very creative and interesting article. It will most likely help me to create a scary story.

    Olivia Roder

    October 21, 2016

    I am actually really scared right now!!! I am home!! It is 9:10 Pm

Black umbrella

October 22, 2016

Thank you soo much! Am not that interested in ghost stories, but sure this time I can rock my story 😉

louis dalton

October 24, 2016

Thanks for the guide. I’m an MA Professional Writing student tasked with writing a 2000 ghost story. I’ll probably post it in my website.

Chandamita Das

October 25, 2016

Ready for my assignment.

Hunter Lynn

October 31, 2016

Tomorrow, November 1st, 2016, starts NANOWRIMO (National Novel Writing Month), and for once i’m ready to spend the next 30 days with a focus, thank you Mr. Colton.

    James Colton

    November 1, 2016

    Good luck! I’ll be participating in NANOWRIMO for the first time this year myself.


December 1, 2016

Mr. Colton this was a really helpful.
I had a story writing competition recently.
In which I had got the topic of horror stories.
After some days my head teacher came to me and told me that the story even scared the soul out of his body.
But I got third prize in it.
Will try to make my stories even better.
Thank you so much.

Holland Davis

December 9, 2016

That story really helped me. Now I know how to finish the ending of my ghost story.

Holland brittain

December 14, 2016

that was so cool now i no how to finish my ghost story for school and also i have one question for the person who wrote this are you a writer if your not then you should be and if you are then your an awesome writer.

    James Colton

    December 14, 2016

    Well, I did write all the stories on this website…


January 23, 2017

This was very helpful! Thank yooouuu! Also, everyone is saying that “a face popped up” on their screen, but I never got a face….. 🙁


March 4, 2017

A greatly instructive and revelatory article, Mr. Colton. This provides great insight into the exquisite genre of horror and its elusive nature when writing.
You and I appear to have a similar perspectives on what is ‘true’ horror, as opposed to the modern-day balderdash. Your stories truly prevail in insinuating fear into the reader. Way to go.
Have you considered posting this on the front page, where it is accessible to everyone?


April 3, 2017

Thank you so much this was really helpful. I just started to get into ghost stories, but I am not a great writer. thanks so much! (people are talking about a face, but I never saw it! is it supposed to be there?)


May 28, 2017

Hello, I am currently writing a ghost story and your tips have made me realize that there isn’t much that I can do to scare them. All the things I used to think would scare them just probably confused or bored them. Thank you for you tips, I will put a link to my story once I have finished it. If you have any other tips you would like me to know don’t hesitate to reply.
Until Next Time, Katie

Ghost hunter

July 30, 2017

I love ghost due to I saw one

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